After the revolution in Soviet Union there were no watch industry at all. For urgent needs some watches were bought abroad, some were produced with the parts that were left or found from Tsar period. But the need for watches was huge so in 1929 USSR bought the entire Duber Hemton watch company with all it's machines, parts, and stocks and First State watch Company was established (Pervij Gosudartvenij Časovoj Zavod) - 1GČZ, which started it's production in 1930.
First watches were pocket watches made with Type 1 movement, which had 7 or 15 jewels.
That movement was also the base movement of the first wrist watches, so called "Saucepan" watches. Those watches were main wrist watches of the Soviet Union army during the Second World War and were produced by all at that time existing watch factories in the USSR. Before the WW2 stamp with the month and year of production was present at the movement (mine is from march 1939), but latter this stamp was abandoned.
On 16.12.1935 1GČZ got the right to use the name of the soviet politician Sergej Moronovič Kirov, who was killed in 1934. From that date factory was named 1GČZ im. Kirovskie.
At the end of 1930's - due to the fact that other watch companies were established - 1GČZ was renamed to First Moscow watch company (Pervij Moskovskij časovoj zavod) - 1 MČZ. The right to use Kirovskie name remained, so the official name was 1MČZ im. Kirovskie.
During the WW2 and due to German attack to Moscow, company was removed from Moscow to Zlatoustovskij. First two years company was mainly integrated into military industry but from 1943 watch production was renewed, when company also moved back to Moscow.
Within the 1MČZ period several important series of the watches were produced. In alphabetical order Cornavin, Kirovskie, Kosmos, Majak, Moskva, Orbita, Poljot, Rodina, Signal,Sekonda, Sportivnie, Sputnik, Stoličnie, Strela, Šturmanskie. The biggest part of my collection represents watches Kirovskie:
On the following picture all the rest of 1MČZ watches (which are not part of other collections as well) are joined (Cardinal is not 1MČZ watch, it's a swiss company based watch for which 1MČZ produced movements).
Next are the watches, which are also part of alarm and space collections and are described in more details there:
Orbita and Kosmos were the last watches produced under the 1MČZ brand. Namely in the honour of the first flight into the space in 1969 the whole company was rebranded from 1MČZ to Poljot (brand poljot itself was issued already in 1964). In 1965 also the brand Seconda was registred, that brand was later registred as the UK company and used at the beginning for the Poljot export purposes but later for all russian watch export industry.
Poljot - Watches from the USSR
Again, the majority of the watches that I still have, are also part of other collections. The watches that don't belong to any other collections are:
Watches, which are part of alarm and space collections are:
Gruen Soviet CCCP
Even though Gruen is not a Poljot brand but independend Swiss company, I put this watch into this collection since this watch has a Poljot quartz movement and it's entire design is made to be a "soviet watch".
Poljot - Watches from Russia
After 1992 Poljot continued with the production but new develpoment was not seen. Step by step economic crisis in Russia heavily impacted Poljot and in 2005 Poljot went into bankrupcy. There is a lot of companies which were established based on the ruins of Poljot and all those are presented in the "Legacy" section. So here only watches from the period 1992-2005 are shown. Again, major part of those watches are already presented in alarm and space sections and only following two watches are not shown before:
The last one is interesting since entire case is made of SS-18 missile.
Now alarm and space watches are again shown also here.